Relief & Effluent Handling Systems Design and Analysis

Standards such as OSHA’s Process Safety Management (PSM) in the United States and Pressure Equipment Directive (PED) in the European Union, as well as many internal corporate standards, require companies to demonstrate that they protect their processes against overpressure hazards, and calls for rigorous evaluations of the design of the pressure relief systems providing that protection. This three-day course will help process safety engineers and managers prepare to meet key elements of the standards by presenting proven best practices and methodologies for overpressure contingency identification and relief device sizing. The course demonstrates a “step-by-step” pressure relief design heuristic, based on Recognized And Generally Accepted Good Engineering Practices (RAGAGEP). In addition, practical examples will be provided for illustration purposes.

The training includes discussions and explanations on the following:
  • The need for overpressure protection and the relevant standards, codes, and practices regarding overpressure protection
  • The application of pressure relief devices as a layer of protection against overpressure
  • A practical approach to relief system design that encompasses the full life-cycle of emergency relief system design
  • The information generally required for the analysis of pressure relief systems and what questions need to be resolved up front before starting the analysis
  • Overpressure contingencies that should be considered for design
  • The various calculation methodologies available for generating a steady-state required relief rate
  • The techniques commonly employed to determine the capacity of relief devices and to design adequate installation constraints
  • The considerations for handling the relief fluid after leaving the relief device
  • The operation and maintenance of the emergency relief system

More specifically, course topics include the following:

  • Government requirements such as the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Process Safety Management (PSM) 1910
  • Design standards such as the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Section VIII Pressure Vessel Code, and the American Petroleum Institute's API-STD520, API-STD521, and API-STD2000 standards 
  • Mechanical details of various relief devices (e.g. pressure safety valves, rupture disks, buckling pins, and low pressure vents)
  • Advantages and disadvantages of these relief devices
  • Relief device installation considerations
  • Typical pressure relief analysis data requirements
  • Overpressure contingency assessment
  • Relief device selection
  • Effluent handling specification
  • Continued operation of pressure relief and effluent handling systems
  • What data is typically collected and where to find that data
  • The gray areas in the codes and practices that need to be clarified
  • Source identification, pressure development, and situations that lead to overpressure (e.g. exposure to fire, overfilling, and utility failures)
  • Control valve failures
  • Flow limitations by piping system capacities and fluid driving equipment
  • Various fire exposure calculations
  • Flow through split heat exchanger tubes
  • API-STD2000 inbreathing and outbreathing calculations
  • Column upsets
  • Highlights of advanced calculations including runaway chemical reactions and dynamic relief analysis
  • Theoretical flow constraints (e.g. isentropic nozzle flow) and modifications to these for use in practical applications
  • Inlet and outlet pressure drop calculations
  • Atmospheric dispersion
  • Piping collection systems
  • Separation equipment
  • Flaring
  • Relief valve inspection and considerations for management of change

  • Effluent Handling Design and Analysis

    The operation of individual relief systems that provide overpressure protection for process equipment introduces the concern of what to do with the fluid that is relieved during an overpressure event. The design of the pressure relief system must incorporate the strategy for handling the effluent. This two-day course will help process safety engineers and managers design comprehensive pressure relief systems by presenting strategies for dealing with relief effluent and the design considerations for those effluent handling equipment. This training provides an explanation of the design considerations for various types of effluent handling equipment and includes a practical example showing the application of flare header hydraulic calculations, gravity separator design, radiation calculations, and dispersion modeling. 

    Topics include:
    • Atmospheric vents
    • Centrifugal liquid-vapor separation           
    • Elevated flare tips
    • Gravity liquid-vapor separation

    • Quench pools
    • Seals
    • Thermal oxidizers
    • Use of the design calculations for
      effluent handling equipment

Don’t Get Distracted…Work in Series

Monday, October 10, 2016
Process safety is a discipline and condition and mindset requiring perpetual vigilance and focus.  There are wolves at the gates 24/7 and one will get through without varied layers of protection.  I do not know a soul that wants this to happen on his or her watch.  So what needs to happen to keep the wolves at bay?  We cannot get distracted. ..

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